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This page is from the beta release of the Data-Oriented Design book. There are errors, spelling and factual, and this page is only kept for purposes of maintaining old links.


For some subsystems, sorting is a highly important function. Sorting the primitive render calls so that they render front to back for opaque objects can have a massive impact on GPU performance, so it's worth doing. Sorting the primitive render calls so they render back to front for alpha blended objects is usually a necessity. Sorting sound channels by their amplitude over their sample position is a good indicator of priority.

Whatever you need to sort for, make sure you need to sort first, as usually, sorting is a highly memory intense business.

Do you need to?

There are some algorithms that seem to require sorted data, but don't, and some that require sorted data but don't seem to. Be sure you know whether you need to before you make any false moves.

One common use of sorting in games is in the render pass where some engine programmers recommend having all your render calls sorted by a high bit count key generated from a combination of depth, mesh, material, shader, and other flags such as whether the call is alpha blended. This then allows the renderer to adjust the sort at runtime to get the most out of the bandwidth available. In the case of the rendering list sort, you could run the whole list through a general sorting algorithm, but in reality, there's no reason to sort the alpha blended objects with the opaque objects, so in many cases you can take a first step of putting the list into two separate buckets, and save some n for your O. Also, choose your sorting algorithm wisely. With opaque objects, the most important part is usually sorting by textures then by depth, but that can change with how much your fill rate is being trashed by overwriting the same pixel multiple times. If your overdraw doesn't matter too much but your texture uploads do, then you probably want to radix sort your calls. With alpha blended calls, you just have to sort by depth, so choose an algorithm that handles that case best, usually a quick sort or a merge sort bring about very low but guaranteed accurate sorting.

Maintain by insertion sort or parallel merge sort

Depending on what you need the list sorted for, you could sort while modifying. If the sort is for some AI function that cares about priority, then you may as well insertion sort as the base heuristic commonly has completely orthogonal inputs. If the inputs are related, then a post insertion table wide sort might be in order, but there's little call for a full scale sort.

If you really do need a full sort, then use an algorithm that likes being parallel. Merge sort and quick sort are somewhat serial in that they end or start with a single thread doing all the work, but there are variants that work well with multiple processing threads, and for small data sets there are special sorting network techniques that can be faster than better algorithms just because they fit the hardware so well8.1.

Sorting for your platfom

Always remembering that in data-oriented development you must look to the data before deciding which way you're going to write the code. What does the data look like? For rendering, there is a large amount of data with different axes for sorting. If your renderer is sorting by mesh and material, to reduce vertex and texture uploads, then the data will show that there are a number of render calls that share texture data, and a number of render calls that share vertex data. Finding out which way to sort first could be figured out by calculating the time it takes to upload a texture, how long it takes to upload a mesh, how many extra uploads are required for each, then calculating the total scene time, but mostly, profiling is the only way to be sure. If you want to be able to profile, or allow for runtime changes in case your game has such varying asset profiles that there is no one solution to fit all, having a flexible sorting criteria is extremely useful, and sometimes necessary. Fortunately, it can be made just as quick as any inflexible sorting technique, bar a small set up cost.

Radix sort is the fastest serial sort. If you can do it, radix sort is very fast because it generates a list of starting points for data of different values. This allows the sorter to drop their contents into containers based on a translation table, a table that returns an offset for a given data value. If you build a list from a known small value space, then radix sort can operate very fast to give a coarse first pass. The reason radix sort is serial, is that it has to modify the table it is reading from in order to update the offsets for the next element that will be put in the same bucket.

It is possible to make this last stage of the process parallel by having each sorter ignore any values that it reads that are outside its working set, meaning that each worker reads through the entire set of values gathering for their bucket, but there is still a small chance of non-linear performance due to having to write to nearby memory on different threads. During the time the worker collects the elements for its bucket, it could be generating the counts for the next radix in the sequence, only requiring a summing before use in the next pass of the data, mitigating the cost of iterating over the whole set with every worker.

If your data is not simple enough to radix sort, you might be better off using a merge sort or a quick sort, but there are other sorts that work very well if you know the length of your sortable buffer at compile time, such as sorting networks. Through merge-sort is not itself a concurrent algorithm, the many early merges can be run in parallel, only the final merge is serial, and with a quick pre-parse of the to-be-merged data, you can finalise with two threads rather than one by starting from both ends (you need to make sure that the mergers don't run out of data). Though quick sort is not a concurrent algorithm each of the sub stages can be run in parallel. These algorithms are inherently serial, but can be turned into partially parallelisable algorithms with O(log n) latency.

When your n is small enough, a traditionally good technique is to write an in place bubble sort. The algorithm is so simple, it is hard to write wrong, and because of the small number of swaps required, the time taken to set up a better sort could be better spent elsewhere. Another argument for rewriting such trivial code is that inline implementations can be small enough for the whole of the data and the algorithm to fit in cache8.2. As the negative impact of the inefficiency of the bubble sort is negligible over such a small n, it is hardly ever frowned upon to do this.

If you've been developing data-oriented, you'll have a transform that takes a table of n and produces the sorted version of it. The algorithm doesn't have to be great to be better than bubble sort, but notice that it doesn't cost any time to use a better algorithm as the data is usually in the right shape already. Data-oriented development naturally leads us to reuse good algorithms.

Sorting networks work by implementing the sort in a static manner. They have input data and run swap if necessary functions on pairs of values of that input data before outputting the final. The simplest sorting network is two inputs.

$\displaystyle \xymatrix{
A \ar[r] & \ar[r] \ar[dr] & \ar[r] & A' \\
B \ar[r] & \ar[r] \ar[ur] & \ar[r] & B' }

If the values entering are in order, the sorting crossover does nothing. If the values are out of order, then the sorting cross over causes the values to swap. This can be implemented as branchless writes:

a' <= MAX(a,b)
b' <= MIN(a,b)

This is fast on any hardware. The MAX and MIN functions will need different implementations for each platform and data type, but in general, branch free code executes faster than code that includes branches.

Introducing more elements:

$\displaystyle \xymatrix{
A \ar[r] & \ar[r] \ar[ddr] & \ar[rrr] & & & \ar[r] \a...
...\ar[rrr] & & & \ar[uur] \ar[r] & \ar[r] & \ar[r] \ar[ur] & \ar[rrr] & & & D' }

What you notice here is that the critical path is not long (just three stages in total), and as these are all branch free functions, the performance is regular over all data permutations. With such a regular performance profile, we can use the sort in ways where the variability of sorting time length gets in the way, such as just-in-time sorting for sub sections of rendering. If we had radix sorted our renderables, we can network sort any final required ordering as we can guarantee a consistent timing.

Sorting networks are somewhat like predication, the branch free way of handling conditional calculations. Because sorting networks use a min / max function, rather than a conditional swap, they gain the same benefits when it comes to the actual sorting of individual elements. Given that sorting networks can be faster than radix sort for certain implementations, it goes without saying that for some types of calculation, predication, even long chains of it, will be faster than code that branches to save processing time. Just such an example exists in the Pitfalls of Object Oriented Design presentation, concluding that lazy evaluation costs more than the job it tried to avoid. I have no hard evidence for it yet, but I believe a lot of AI code could benefit the same, in that it would be wise to gather information even when you are not sure you need it, as gathering it might be quicker than deciding not to. For example, seeing if someone is in your field of vision, and is close enough, might be small enough that it can be done for all AI rather than just the ones that require it, or those that require it occasionally.

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Next: Relational Databases Up: Data-Oriented Design Previous: Searching   Contents Beta release of Data-Oriented Design :
Expect errors, spelling and factual. Expect out of date data, or missing stuff. Expect to be bored stiff in some sections, and rushed in others, but most of all, please send any feedback on any of these and any other things that you spot, to

Richard Fabian 2013-06-25